Malaria is caused by a type of parasite known as Plasmodium. This is a microscopic parasite that is transmitted by certain species of mosquitoes. Although there are numerous types of Plasmodia parasites, only four cause malaria in humans. These include:
- Plasmodium falciparum
- Plasmodium vivax
- Plasmodium ovale
- Plasmodium malariae
Features of malaria include high fever over 38C (100.4F) along with chills and sweating. There is intense muscle pain, headache, blurring of vision and dizziness. Some patients may develop diarrhea and vomiting as well. Symptoms develop within seven days after being bitten or may take between 10 to 15 days to appear.
Malaria can sometimes become complicated. Some of the complications include:
- severe anaemia
- cerebral malaria
- malaria during pregnancy
- spleen rupture
- kidney damage
- multi-organ failure etc.
Nursing Care Plan for Malaria
Nursing Diagnosis 1.
Hyperthermia related to the development of malaria parasites in red blood cells.
1. · Assess any complaints or signs of increased body temperature changes.
R /: Increased body temperature will exhibit a variety of symptoms such as red eyes and the body feels warm.
2. Observation of vital signs, especially body temperature as indicated.
R /: To determine interventions.
3. Warm water compress on the forehead and both axilla.
R /: stimulates the hypothalamus to the center of the temperature setting.
4. Collaboration of antipyretic drugs.
R /: Controlling fever.
Nursing Diagnosis 2.
Risk for Fluid Volume Deficit related to hyperthermia
1. Supervise the input and output of fluids. Estimate loss of fluid through sweat.
R /: Provides information about the fluid balance, are guidelines for fluid replacement.
2. Observations of decreased skin turgor.
R /: Indicates excessive fluid loss / dehydration.
3. Give parenteral fluids if needed.
R /: Helping peroral fluid intake.
Nursing Diagnosis 3.
Imbalanced Nutrition, Less Than Body Requirements related to anorexia
1. Encourage bed rest / or activity restrictions.
R /: Maintaining sufficient energy savings.
2. Provide oral hygiene.
R /: a clean mouth can enhance the flavor of food.
3. Provide food in a well ventilated, pleasant environment, the situation is not in a hurry, accompany.
R /: Pleasant surroundings lower stress and more conducive to eating.
4. Collaboration of antiemetic drugs.
R /: Eliminate the symptoms of nausea and vomiting.
Nursing Diagnosis 4
Knowledge Deficit: about disease
1. Determine the patient's perception of the disease process.
R /: Creating a knowledge base and provide awareness of individual learning needs.
2. Review the disease process, the cause / effect relationship factors that cause symptoms and identify ways to lose factors. Encourage questions.
R /: Trigger factors / ballast individuals, so the patient needs to be aware of lifestyle factors may trigger symptoms. Accurate knowledge base gives patients the opportunity to make an informed decision / choice about the future and control of chronic diseases. Although many patients know about the disease itself, they can experience that has been left behind or wrong concept.
3. The review: medicine, destination, frequency, dosage, and possible side effects.
R /: Improving understanding and to increase cooperation in the program.