Meningitis is a disease caused by the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord known as the meninges. The inflammation is usually caused by an infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Anyone can get meningitis, but it is more common in people whose bodies have trouble fighting infections. Meningitis can progress rapidly. You should seek medical care quickly if you have
- A sudden fever
- A severe headache
- A stiff neck
Meningitis can produce mild symptoms — such as headache, low-grade fever and tiredness lasting two to three days — in some patients. In other patients, the symptoms can be severe and begin suddenly with fever, headache and stiff neck accompanied by some combination of other symptoms: decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to bright light, confusion and sleepiness.
In newborns and infants, the classic findings of fever, headache and stiff neck may or may not be present. An infant may have no other symptoms than being listless, irritable and sleepy, having little interest in feeding and possibly vomiting. A purplish red rash may appear with meningococcal meningitis.
Nursing Diagnosis for Meningitis : Ineffective Tissue Perfusion related to Increased Intracranial Pressure
- The patient returned to the state of the neurological status before the illness.
- Increased patient awareness and sensory function.
- Vital signs are within normal limits
- Reduced head pain
- The increased awareness
- An increase in cognitive or loss and no signs of increased intracranial pressure.
Intervention and Rational:
1. Patients total bed rest with supine sleeping position without a pillow.
R /: Changes in intracranial pressure can cause the risk of going to the occurrence of brain herniation.
2. Monitor signs of neurological status with the GCS.
R /: to reduce further brain damage.
3. Monitor vital signs such as blood pressure, pulse, temperature, and caution in systolic hypertension.
R \ /: In normal autoregulation to maintain a state of altered systemic blood pressure fluctuations. Autoreguler failure will cause cerebral vascular damage that can be manifested by an increase in systolic and diastolic pressure followed by a decrease. While the increase in temperature can describe the course of infection.
4. Monitor intake and output.
R /: Hyperthermia can lead to increased IWL and increase the risk of dehydration, especially in patients who are not aware, a decrease nausea peroral intake.
5. Help patients to limit vomiting, coughing. Instruct the patient to exhale when moving or turning in bed.
R /: This activity can increase intracranial pressure and intra-abdominal. Exhale while moving or changing positions can protect themselves from the effects of Valsalva.
1. Give fluids per infusion with strict attention.
R /: Minimize the burden of vascular and fluctuations in intracranial pressure, fluid and fluid vetriksi can reduce cerebral edema.
2. Monitor AGD when needed oxygen delivery.
R /: The possibility of acidosis accompanied by the release of oxygen at the cellular level may lead to ischemic cerebral.
3. Provide appropriate therapy doctors advice.