The Symptoms of Most Common Types of Anemia

Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues.

1. Anemia due to B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a low red blood cell count due to a lack of vitamin B12.

Symptoms can include:

  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Fatigue, lack of energy, or light-headedness when standing up or with exertion
  • Loss of appetite
  • Pale skin
  • Problems concentrating
  • Shortness of breath, mostly during exercise
  • Swollen, red tongue or bleeding gums

If you have low vitamin B12 levels for a long time, you can have nerve damage. Symptoms of nerve damage include:
  • Confusion or change in mental status (dementia) in severe cases
  • Depression
  • Loss of balance
  • Numbness and tingling of hands and feet

2. Anemia due to folate deficiency

Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) due to a lack of folate. Folate is a type of B vitamin. It is also called folic acid.

Causes of this type of anemia include:
  • Too little folic acid in your diet
  • Hemolytic anemia
  • Long-term alcoholism
  • Use of certain medications (such as phenytoin [Dilantin], methotrexate, sulfasalazine, triamterene, pyrimethamine, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and barbiturates)

Symptoms :
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Pallor
  • Sore mouth and tongue


3. Anemia due to iron deficiency

Iron is an important building block for red blood cells. When your body does not have enough iron, it will make fewer red blood cells or red blood cells that are too small. This is called iron deficiency anemia.

You can get iron deficiency if:
  • You lose more blood cells and iron than your body can replace
  • Your body does not do a good job of absorbing iron
  • Your body is able to absorb iron, but you are not eating enough foods with iron in them
  • Your body needs more iron than normal (such as if you are pregnant or breastfeeding)

Symptoms may include:
  • Feeling grumpy
  • Feeling weak or tired more often than usual, or with exercise
  • Headaches
  • Problems concentrating or thinking

Symptoms of the conditions that cause iron deficiency anemia include:
  • Dark, tar-colored stools or blood
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding (women)
  • Pain in the upper belly (from ulcers)
  • Weight loss (in people with cancer)


4. Anemia of chronic disease

Anemia of chronic disease is anemia that is found in people with certain long-term (chronic) medical conditions.

Conditions that can lead to anemia of chronic disease include:
  • Autoimmune disorders, such as Crohn's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis
  • Cancer, including lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Liver cirrhosis
  • Long-term infections, such as bacterial endocarditis, osteomyelitis (bone infection), HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B or hepatitis C.

Smptoms may include:
  • Feeling weak or tired
  • Headache
  • Paleness
  • Shortness of breath


5. Hemolytic anemia

Normally, red blood cells last for about 120 days before the body gets rid of them. In hemolytic anemia, red blood cells in the blood are destroyed earlier than normal.

The first symptoms may be:
  • Feeling grumpy
  • Feeling weak or tired more often than usual, or with exercise
  • Headaches
  • Problems concentrating or thinking

If the anemia gets worse, symptoms may include:
  • Blue color to the whites of the eyes
  • Brittle nails
  • Light-headedness when you stand up
  • Pale skin color
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sore tongue


6. Idiopathic aplastic anemia

Idiopathic aplastic anemia is a condition in which the bone marrow fails to properly make blood cells. Bone marrow is the soft, fatty tissue in the center of bones.

Symptoms are the result of bone marrow failure and the loss of blood cell production.

Low red cell count (anemia) can cause:
  • Fatigue
  • Pallor (paleness)
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Shortness of breath with exercise
  • Weakness

Low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) results in bleeding, especially of the mucous membranes and skin. Symptoms include:
  • Bleeding gums
  • Easy bruising
  • Frequent or severe infections
  • Nose bleeds
  • Rash--small pinpoint red marks on the skin (petechiae)


7. Pernicious anemia

Pernicious anemia is a decrease in red blood cells that occurs when your intestines cannot properly absorb vitamin B12.

Some people do not have symptoms. Symptoms may be mild. Include:
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Fatigue, lack of energy, or light-headedness when standing up or with exertion
  • Loss of appetite
  • Pale skin
  • Problems concentrating
  • Shortness of breath, mostly during exercise
  • Swollen, red tongue or bleeding gums

If you have low vitamin B12 levels for a long time, you can have nervous system damage. Symptoms can include:
  • Confusion
  • Depression
  • Loss of balance
  • Numbness and tingling in the hands and feet


8. Sickle cell anemia

Sickle cell anemia is a disease passed down through families in which red blood cells form an abnormal sickle or crescent shape. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body and are normally shaped like a disc.

When the anemia becomes more severe, symptoms may include:
  • Fatigue
  • Paleness
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Shortness of breath
  • Yellowing of the eyes and skin (jaundice)

The following symptoms may occur because small blood vessels may become blocked by the abnormal cells:
  • Painful and prolonged erection (priapism)
  • Poor eyesight or blindness
  • Problems with thinking or confusion caused by small strokes
  • Ulcers on the lower legs (in adolescents and adults)


9. Thalassemia

Thalassemia is a blood disorder passed down through families (inherited) in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. The disorder results in excessive destruction of red blood cells, which leads to anemia.

Children born with thalessemia major (Cooley's anemia) are normal at birth, but develop severe anemia during the first year of life.

Other symptoms can include:
  • Bone deformities in the face
  • Fatigue
  • Growth failure
  • Shortness of breath
  • Yellow skin (jaundice)

Reference :

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000560.htm

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