Typhoid fever is a bacterial disease, caused by Salmonella typhi. It is transmitted through the ingestion of food or drink contaminated by the faeces or urine of infected people.
Salmonella Typhi lives only in humans. Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. In addition, a small number of persons, called carriers, recover from typhoid fever but continue to carry the bacteria. Both ill persons and carriers shed Salmonella Typhi in their feces (stool).
Typhoid fever can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually leads to a less severe illness. The bacteria are deposited in water or food by a human carrier and are then spread to other people in the area. Typhoid fever is rare in industrial countries but continues to be a significant public-health issue in developing countries.
Early symptoms include fever, general ill-feeling, and abdominal pain. A high (typically over 103 degrees Fahrenheit) fever and severe diarrhea occur as the disease gets worse.
Other symptoms that occur include : Abdominal tenderness, Agitation, Bloody stools, Chills, Confusion, Difficulty paying attention (attention deficit), Delirium, Fluctuating mood, Hallucinations, Nosebleeds, Severe fatigue, Slow, sluggish, lethargic feeling, weakness.
Two basic actions can protect you from typhoid fever:
- Avoid risky foods and drinks.
- Get vaccinated against typhoid fever.
Fluids and electrolytes may be given through a vein (intravenously), or you may be asked to drink uncontaminated water with electrolyte packets.
Appropriate antibiotics are given to kill the bacteria. There are increasing rates of antibiotic resistance throughout the world, so your health care provider will check current recommendations before choosing an antibiotic.
11 Nursing Diagnosis for Typhoid Fever
1. Ineffective Breathing Pattern
related to: the imbalance of oxygen supply to the needs, dyspnea.
2. Imbalanced Body Temperature: Hyperthermia
related to the inflammatory process typhi salmonella germs.
3. Acute Pain related to the inflammatory process.
4. Disturbed Sleep Pattern related to pain, fever.
5. Imbalanced Nutrition, Less Than Body Requirements related to inadequate intake.
6. Risk for Fluid Volume Deficit related to inadequate intake and increased body temperature.
7. Altered Bowel Elimination related to constipation.
8. Disturbed Sensory Perception : Visual. related to loss of consciousness.
9. Impaired Physical Mobility related to intake of weakness.
10. Self-Care Deficit : Bathing / Hygiene related to weakness.
11. Anxiety: parents related to lack of knowledge about the disease and the child's condition.