Causes and Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus

What is Diabetes Insipidus?

Diabetes insipidus is a disorder in which there is a lack of antidiuretic hormone which causes excessive thirst (polidipsi) and spending large amounts of very dilute urine (polyuria).

There are two types of diabetes insipidus, namely:

  1. Central diabetes insipidus, where a decline in production of antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin.
  2. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which antidiuretic hormone levels are normal but whose kidneys do not respond normally to the hormone.
Causes, among others:
  1. Tumors of the hypothalamus.
  2. Tumors of the pituitary and hypothalamic nuclei smash.
  3. Head trauma.
  4. Injury to surgery in the hypothalamus.
  5. Aneurysm or blockage of arteries leading to the brain.
  6. Granulomatous diseases.
Causes of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus include:
  1. Chronic kidney disease (polycystic kidney disease, medullary cystic disease, pielonefretis, obstruction / occlusion ureteral, renal failure continued.
  2. Electrolyte disorders (hypokalemia, hypercalcemia).
  3. Drugs (lithium, demoksiklin, asetoheksamid, tolazamid, glikurid, propoksifen).
  4. Sickle cell disease.
  5. Dietary disorders.
What are symptoms ?

Thirst and excessive urine spending and too often. And often it is the only symptom. Diabetes insipidus can occur gradually or suddenly at any age.

As compensation for the loss of fluid through the urine, the patient can drink large amounts of fluids (3.8 to 38 L / day). If compensation is not met, it soon will be dehydration that causes low blood pressure and shock. Patients continue to urinate in very much, especially at night.

If the symptoms described above, see your doctor. And the doctor will perform further tests. To get rid of diabetes mellitus (diabetes) examined the sugar in the urine.

Examination of the simplest and most reliable for diabetes insipidus is a water deprivation test. During the examination of these patients should not drink and severe dehydration can occur. Therefore, this examination should be performed in a hospital or doctor's office. Formation of urine, blood electrolyte levels (sodium) and weight were measured on a regular basis for a few hours. As soon as the drop in blood pressure or heart rate or weight loss of more than 5%, the test was terminated and given an injection of antidiuretic hormone.

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