Types and Common Symptoms of Dementia

Dementia or also known as senility is the term used to describe the symptoms of a number of illnesses that affect the brain. Dementia is a term which describes as range of conditions which cause damage to the brain. This damage affects memory, thinking, language and our ability to perform everyday tasks. Other common symptoms include emotional problems, problems with language, and a decrease in motivation.

The most common cause is Alzheimer's disease, but there are other causes, including Parkinson's disease. Other common types include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia and frontotemporal dementia. Less common causes include normal pressure hydrocephalus, Parkinson's disease, syphilis, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease among others.

Various Types of Dementia

There are various types of dementia. The most common include:
  1. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia.
  2. Lewy body disease.
  3. Vascular dementia.
  4. Alcohol-related dementia.
  5. Frontotemporal dementia.
  6. Dementia caused by Huntington's disease.
  7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -associated dementia (HAD).

Common Symptoms of Dementia

1. Impaired memory
Often forget the events that had just happened, forget appointments, asking and telling the same thing over and over again (in the high frequency).

2. Difficult perform daily activities
Often it is difficult to plan or complete everyday tasks, confused how to drive, difficult to manage finances.

3. Difficult to focus
Difficult to perform activities of daily work, forgot how to cook, operate phone, mobile phone, can not do simple calculations, work with a longer time than usual.

4. Difficulty understanding visuospatial
Difficult to read, measure distances, determine the distance, distinguish colors, does not recognize his own face in the mirror, mirror crashing while running, pouring water in a glass but spilled and not appropriate pour.

5. Disorientation
Confused about the time (day / date / day is important), confused where they are and how they got there, did not know the way back home.

6. Communicate disorders
Difficulty speaking and looking for the right word, often stopping in the middle of a conversation and confused to continue.

7. One in making decisions
Dressed in mismatched, for example, wearing a red shirt left foot, right foot blue shirt, can not take into account payments in the transaction and can not care for themselves well.

8. Put the goods are not in place
Forget where to put something, even sometimes suspect there who steal or conceal the goods.

9. Changes in behavior and personality
Emotions change drastically, become confused, suspicious, depressed, fearful or dependent on a family member excessive, easily frustrated and discouraged both at home and at work.

10. Pulling away from the association
Does not have the spirit or initiative to perform usual activities or hobbies enjoyed, not too excited to get together with his friends.

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Prevention and Nursing Management for Skin Cancer

Skin protects the body from injury and is a bulwark against bacterial infections, viruses, and fungi. Heat loss and heat storage arranged through vasodilation of skin blood vessels or sweat glands secretion. If skin surface is damaged then, an important body fluid will evaporate and electrolytes will be lost within a few hours.

There are several types of skin cancer. Skin cancer that forms in melanocytes (skin cells that make pigment) is called melanoma. Skin cancer that forms in squamous cells (flat cells that form the surface of the skin) is called squamous cell carcinoma. Skin cancer that forms in the lower part of the epidermis (the outer layer of the skin) is called basal cell carcinoma. Skin cancer that forms in neuroendocrine cells (cells that release hormones in response to signals from the nervous system) is called neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin.

Sunlight is a major cause of skin cancer. Changes in the ozone layer caused by pollutants such as chlorofluorocarbon pollution, for those who got the ith therapy uses x-rays also cause skin cancer.

Increase in skin cancers are caused by changes in lifestyle, habits of people to sunbathe and do activities in the sun.

Another cause could be found, from skin cancer include:
  • Due to genetic factors.
  • Deficiency in the production of melanin pigment in the skin.
  • Coming into contact with certain chemicals, such as arsenic compounds, nitrate, coal, asphalt and paraffin.
  • Exposure X-ray and medical industries.
Skin tumors can be formed from different types of cells in the skin like epidermal cells and melanocytes. These tumors can be benign or malignant and can be localized in the epidermis or penetrate into the dermis and subcutaneous tissue.

Wet cell carcinoma incidence, based on the amount of melanin pigment in the epidermis and the old total direct exposure to the sun, the sailors and farmers for example, and are often exposed to the sun such as the face, head and neck.

Spectrum of sunlight, which are carcinogenic, are light wavelength range between 280-320 nm and other causes irradiation with light - x, facto genetic but such rare albino and xeroderma pigmentosum.
Spectrum of the sun is what makes skin burn and become damaged (skin color changes to brown).

Clinical Manifestations
  1. The form of skin disorders like moles, the shape is not symmetrical or the shape has no edges that are not equal to each other.
  2. Moles, who has more than one color color. Moles usually have a dark brown color. When seen have a dark brown color and looks to have some red, white, black or dice should be more vigilant.
  3. Moles uneven or faded.
  4. The mole with a diameter more than 6 mm should be checked.
  5. When the changes as painful inflamed bleed easily should consult a physician.

Skin Cancer Prevention
  1. Do not try to make the sun quickly yellowish brown skin, if your skin burn easily.
  2. Avoid unnecessary sun, especially when UV radiation occurs.
  3. Do not let sunburn because UV rays.
  4. Apply sunscreen skin protection preparations if you have to bask under the hot sun. This preparation will prevent the sun's harmful rays.
  5. Apply sunscreen preparations exposed to the sun again after a long time.
  6. Use a lip moisturizer containing ata ligloss reparat sunscreen with a high SPF number.
  7. Wear appropriate protective clothing (eg, hat, long-sleeved shirt).
  8. Do not use a heating lamp to make the skin a yellowish brown.

Skin Cancer Nursing Management

Because many skin cancers removed with excision of action, ran nurses are:
  1. Relieves pain and discomfort.
  2. Provision of appropriate analgesics.
  3. Relieves anxiety.
  4. Patient education and home care considerations.

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Nursing Diagnosis related to Endocarditis

Endocarditis is an infection of the heart valves or the inner membrane of the heart (endocardium). Most people who develop this condition already have heart problems and are over 50 years old, but it can occur at any age, including in children. Symptoms can include fever and chills, lethargy, loss of appetite, slow or rapid heart rate, increased breathing and a persistent cough. There are two types of endocarditis: infective and non-infective.

Some of the general symptoms of endocarditis can include:
  • Fever and chills
  •  Loss of appetite
  • Lethargy
  • Generalised aching throughout the body
  • Abnormal heart rhythms such as a slow heart rate or tachycardia (rapid heart rate)
  • Heart murmur
  • Increased breathing
  • Persistent cough.

The following conditions increase the risk:
  • a history of rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease
  •  prosthetic (artificial) heart valves
  • a congenital (present at birth) heart defect
  • a history of intravenous drug use
  • mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
  • diabetes
  • pregnancy

Nursing Diagnosis related to Endocarditis

1. Acute Pain related to
  • Inflammation of the myocardium or pericardium
  • Systemic effects of infection
  • Ischemic tissue (myocardium)

Possibility is evidenced by:
  • Chest pain, spreading to neck / back
  • Joint pain
  • Increased pain with deep inspiration, movement activities, position.
  • Fever, chills.

2. Activity Intolerance related to:
  • Inflammation and degeneration of myocardial muscle cells.
  • Restriction of cardiac filling / ventricular contraction, reduced cardiac output.
  • Toxin from the organism.
Possibility evidenced by:
  • Complaints weakness / fatigue / dyspnea with activity.
  • Changes in signs for activity.
  • Signs of chronic heart failure.

3. Risk for Decreased cardiac output related to:
  • Accumulation of fluid, in Pericardial sac (pericarditis)
  • Stenosis / valve insufficiency
  • Decrease in ventricular function or constricting
  • Degeneration of the heart muscle

Possibility evidenced by:
  • Not applicable for signs and symptoms make the actual diagnosis

4. Risk for Ineffective Tissue Perfusion related to:
  • Thrombus embolism / vegetation valve endocarditis secondary to

Possibility evidenced by:
  • Not applicable for signs and symptoms to make the diagnosis of actual

5. Knowledge Deficit: about condition / treatment can be related to:
  • Lack of information about the disease, how to prevent recurrence or complications

Possibility evidenced by:
  • Request for information
  • Failure to improve
  • Recurrence / complications that can be prevented

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Physical Examination and Examination Support for Rabies

Rabies is an acute infectious disease of the central nervous system in humans and mammals which have been fatal.

In humans theoretically, clinical symptoms consisted of 4 stages in a real situation is difficult to separate one from the other, namely:
  1. Nonspecific prodromal symptoms
  2. Acute encephalitis
  3. Brainstem dysfunction
  4. Coma and death

A variety of complications can occur in patients with rabies and usually occur in comatose. Neurologic complications can include increased intra-cranial pressure: abnormalities in the hypothalamus in the form of diabetes insipidus, syndrome of anti diuretic hormone abnormalities; autonomic dysfunction that causes hypertension, hypotension, hyperthermia, hypothermia, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Can be local or generalized seizures, and often in conjunction with arrhythmias and respiratory disorders. In the prodromal stage, common complications of hyperventilation and respiratory depression occurred in the neurological phase. Hypotension occurs due to congestive heart failure, dehydration and autonomic nervous breakdown.

Physical Examination of Rabies :

1. Respiratory Status
  • Increased respiratory rate
  • Tachycardia
  • Temperatures generally increased (37.9 ยบ C)
  • shiver

2. Nutritional Status
  • Difficulty in swallowing food
  • What is the patient's weight
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Servings the meal was spent
  • Ntritional status

3. Status Neuro-sensory
  • Signs of inflammation

4. security
  • Convulsions
  • Weakness

5. Ego integrity
  • Clients feel anxious
  • Clients do not understand about the disease

Neurologic Physical Assessment:

1. Vital signs:
  • Temperature
  • Breathing
  • Heartbeat
  • Blood pressure
  • Pulse pressure

2. Fontanel head examination results:
  • Prominent, flat, concave
  • Common form of head

3. Pupillary Reaction
  • Size
  • Reaction to light
  • The similarity of response
4. Level of vigilance awareness:
  • The response to the call
  • Irritability
  • Lethargy and drowsiness
  • Orientation to self and others

5. Affect
  • Natural feeling
  • Lability

6. Seizure Activity
  • Type
  • Length

7. Sensory Function
  • Reaction to pain
  • Reaction to temperature
8. Reflex
  • Superficial tendon reflexes
  • Pathological reflexes

Examination Support of Rabies

There are few checks on rabies are:

1. Electroencephalogram (EEG): fatherly used to help define the type and focus of the seizures.

2. CT scan: using X-ray studies are more sensitive than normal to detect differences in tissue density.

3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): generating shadows using a magnetic field and radio waves, useful to show areas of the brain that are not clearly visible when using a CT scan.

4. Positron emission tomography (PET): to evaluate persistent seizures and helped establish the location of the lesion, metabolic changes in the brain or blood alirann.

5. Laboratory Test
  • Lumbar puncture: fluid analyzed cerebrovascular
  • Complete blood count: evaluate platelet and hematocrit
  • electrolyte panel
  • Toxic screening of serum and urine
  • GDA
  • Blood Glucose: Hypoglycemia is a predisposition seizure less than 200 mq / dl
  • BUN: Increased BUN, has the potential for seizures and an indication of the nephrotoxic effect of drug administration.
  • Electrolytes: K, Na
  • Electrolyte imbalance predisposes to seizure

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Malignant Lymphoma - Pathophysiology and Nursing Management

Understanding of malignant lymphoma among others by:

Danielle, (1999) that lymphoma is a malignancy that arises from the lymphatic system.

Susan Martin Tucker, (1998) is a group of neoplasms derived from lymphoid tissue.

Suzanne C. Smeltzer, (2001), suggested that malignant lymphoma is a malignancy of cells derived from lymphoid cells.

Doenges, (1999) is a cancer of the lymphoid glands.

Pathophysiology of Malignant Lymphoma

Malignant lymphoma is derived from lymphocytes. These tumors usually stems from lymph nodes, but can involve the lymphoid tissue in the spleen, gastrointestinal tract (eg, stomach wall), liver, or bone marrow. Lymphocytes in lymph nodes is also derived from multipotential stem cells, in the bone marrow. Multipotential stem cells in the early stages of transformation into a lymphocyte progenitor cells that subsequently differentiate along two parallel paths. Partial maturation in the thymus gland to become T lymphocytes, and partly to the lymph nodes or remain in the bone marrow and differentiate into B lymphocytes cells If there is an appropriate antigen stimulation by the T and B lymphocytes will be transformed into an active form and proliferating. Activated T lymphocytes functioning cellular immune response. Whereas B lymphocytes are then activated to imunoblas into plasma cells that form the immunoglobulins. Changes in normal lymphocytes into cell lymphoma is caused by a gene mutation on one of the cells of a group of old lymphocytes are in the process of transformation into imunoblas (the result of the stimulation of immunogen). This occurs in the lymph nodes, where lymphocytes are outside centrum old germinativum while imunoblast be the most central part germinativum centrum. If the tumor enlarges, it can cause and if not treated early it causes malignant lymphoma.

Cause of these tumors is unknown, but there are some risk factors include: immunodeficiency, infectious agents, environmental and occupational exposures (such as forest workers, farmers and agriculture), ultraviolet exposure, smoking, and eating foods high in animal fat. Signs and symptoms include fatigue, malaise weight loss, increased temperature, infection susceptibility, dysphagia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, anemia, edema arising anasarka, drop in blood pressure, shortness of breath when grown in the chest area and disorders / enlargement organ. If this condition is ongoing, it can cause complications of pleural effusion, bone fracture, paralysis and death must happen within 1 to 3 years if no treatment.

Nursing Management of Malignant Lymphoma

Nursing management, according to Brunner and Suddarth (2000), in providing care and client education. Clients often feel afraid to drugs that are radioactive and requires maintenance action and follow-up monitoring is special because it is the nurse should convey information about the therapeutic and soothing feelings of clients and families. Laparotomy for postoperative clients, clients are encouraged to rest and to avoid strain on the stitches. Gauze covering the wound should be reviewed periodically to determine the presence of bleeding or not and do wound care on a daily basis according to the program, to observe signs of infection.

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